Vamsee K. Pamula - Durham NC,
Michael G. Pollack - Durham NC,
Philip Y. Paik - Durham NC,
Hong Ren - Chapel Hill NC,
Richard B. Fair - Durham NC,
Duke University - Durham NC
436 53, 436 43, 436 47, 436 52, 436 63, 436174, 436180, 422 50, 422 681, 422 81, 422 82, 422100
In a method for sampling a continuous liquid flow, the liquid flow is supplied to a surface along an input flow path. The liquid flow is sampled by forming a sample droplet from a portion of the liquid flow. The sample droplet is moved along an analysis flow path to a processing area of the surface, where the sample droplet is processed. Discrete sample droplets are formed and moved using an electrowetting technique. A binary mixing apparatus and method are also provided. The apparatus comprises an array of electrodes, an electronic controller communicating with the electrodes, a sample droplet supply area communicating with the array, and an additive droplet supply area communicating with the array. The electronic controller alternately energizes and de-energizes selected electrodes to carry out droplet-to-droplet binary mixing operations to obtain one or more droplets having a target mixing ratio.